1563 is the year of great change. Following the Cateau-Cambrèsis treaty of 1559, Emanuele Filiberto decides to make Turin the capital of his dominion (which is currently Chambèry). This new capital needs first and foremost to be able to defend itself. Thus in 1566 Francesco Paciotto’s design of the pentagonal citadel of Turin is built (of which today only the Mastio remains, site of the Museo di Artiglieria (Artillery Museum); the rest was destroyed in the mid 1850's). After this project is finished, the city begins to expand. In the late 1500's Carlo Emanuele I entrusts military engineer Ascanio Vitozzi with the task of completely restructuring the city so as to accommodate the new growth. The results of this undertaking include the Palazzo Ducale (where Palazzo Reale stands today), piazza Castello, the first section of the “Contrada Nuova” (today via Roma), and a “vineyard” on the hill (today Villa della Regina). The subsequent city expansions towards the south, east, and west are the work of Carlo di Castellamonte (to whom we have to thank for piazza San Carlo), Amedeo di Castellamonte (who gave us via Po), and Antonio Bertola and Michelangelo Garove (who designed piazza Carlina).
This is also the time for the construction of royal residences. The Castello del Valentino is enlarged by Cristina of France; Amedeo di Castellamonte builds the Venaria royal palace. Then Guarini enters the scene, and then Juvarra. Guarini gives the city a number of important monuments: the church of San Lorenzo, the cupola of the Cappella della Sindone (Chapel of the Holy Shroud), and the facade of Palazzo Carignano. Juvarra from Messina is so ambitious as to want to restructure the entire city, and he is given full encouragement in this endeavor by Vittorio Amedeo II. Vittorio Amedeo II is of course interested in a make-over of Turin insofar as it celebrates his “promotion” – he has just gained control of the kingdom of Sicily (which was then switched to Sardinia) and so comes away from the treaty of Utrecht (1713) with a royal title. Juvarra does not like the idea of “walls”, rather he prefers the idea of “centralità diffusa” (diffused centrality) which translates into the projection of the power of the capital over the entire territory. He thus redesigns the city – he restructures the Castello di Rivoli (castle), he builds the basilica di Superga, he completes the Venaria royal residence, he redoes the facade on the church of Santa Cristina, and he designs the beautiful Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi (Hunting House).
After Juvarra leaves Turin for Madrid in 1733, construction comes to a halt. The Savoy kingdom is involved in a war for the Austrian succession. But towards the end of the 1700's, another urban re-design of Turin is needed to accommodate the 94,000 people living there. In 1756 Benedetto Alfieri redesigns the city center: piazza Palazzo di Città.